– De vroege papegaaien

Utrecht. Papegaaienmuseum. Polly studies. Referentiearchief. De vroege papegaaien.




Abstract [1]

‘The study of birds began with Aristotle, but stagnated between the first century ad and the Renaissance. Ornithology became scientific with the abandonment of emblematics in the 1670s. John Ray initiated two strands of ornithology: systematics and natural history (field ornithology) in the late 1600s. Systematic ornithology focussed on the naming and classification of birds, and later, their geographical distribution. The natural history of birds (field ornithology) focussed on behaviour, ecology and ultimate causes. Ornithological encyclopedias were a product of the Renaissance. After the Renaissance ornithology became increasingly specialized. Charles Darwin’s concepts of natural and sexual selection in the mid-late 1800s were important in encouraging scientific interest in birds. The two strands of ornithology, systematics and natural history, were re-united in the 1920s (Germany) and 1940s (the UK and the USA). The modernization of ornithology during the twentieth century occurred largely as a result of the conceptual unification of evolutionary thinking in the 1940s and the focus on individual selection in the 1970s.’ (Birkhead, 2009)

This document is partially written in English and partially in Dutch. The Parrot Museum (Papegaaienmuseum) is continually adding to its collections.



Parrot Iconography: Symbolism and subtext [2]


  • Antiquity: Ancient Greece [Beginnings to 100 A.D.]; The Roman Empire [Beginnings to 100 A.D]
  • Medieval: Medieval – Christian Europe [100 A.D. to 1500]
  • Renaissance: The Renaissance [1500-1650]
  • Baroque and the Enlightenment: Baroque and the Enlightenment in Europe [1650-1800]
  • Nineteenth Century: Revolution and Romanticism in Europe and America [1800-1900]; Realism, Naturalism, and Symbolism in Europe [1800-1900]
  • Twentieth Century: The 20th Century: Bourgeois Realism and European Modernisms [1900s].
  • Post-Modern: Post-Modernism [1965-Today]

(and) (as seen from the perspective of the parrot)

  • Artful: Clever or skilful, typically in a crafty or cunning way
  • Eloquence: Fluent, Articulate, Expressive, Silver-tongued, Persuasive in speaking
  • Emblematic: Intrinsically serving as a symbol of a particular quality or concept
  • Exile: Enforced removal from one’s native country or, self-imposed absence from one’s country
  • Old Salt: An experienced sailor
  • Ostentatious: Designed to impress or attract notice
  • Sensuality and Senses: The enjoyment, expression, or pursuit of physical, esp. sexual, pleasure, (and), Senses: One of the faculties of sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch
  • The Christ spirit: Feeling or showing deep and solemn respect



  • (Artful) # Gewiekst op de eerste plaats
  • (Artful) # Leert door met ijzeren staaf(je) op de kop te slaan
  • (Artful) # Leert sneller wanneer jong
  • (Artful) (Eloquence) # Kan onbenullig of begenadigd (na)praten
  • (Artful)# Leert met hulp van een spiegel (van waarachter verstopt de mens het beest leert spreken) en raakt verkikkerd op spiegeling
  • (Eloquence) # Kan Ave (ceasar) zeggen
  • (Exile) # Is blij met gevangenschap want onder de mensen
  • (Ostentious) # Groen met rode band om de nek (soortbeschrijving ) [3]
  • (Ostentious) # Kan niet tegen water (regen) want verliest kleuren want gaat dood
  • (Ostentious) # Met vijf tenen aan de voeten (beter dan drie) (gebruikt ze om te eten)
  • (Ostentious) # Zeer harde kop harde bek (kan op snavel landen)
  • (Sensuality and Senses) Drinkt graag wijn (wordt uitbundig en wellustig)
  • (The Christ spirit) # Kan (niet aangeleerd) Ave (Maria) zeggen

Komt in de embleemboeken nog bij [4]

  • (Emblematic) # Zintuigen: horen en voor alles tast want kan aardig bijten
  • (Exile) # Blij met gevangenschap want onder de mensen (‘gevangen’ in de liefde gevangen in het geloof)

Hors concours: ooit was papegaai een mens (Boccaccio)



Ctesias (eind 5e eeuw, begin 4e eeuw v. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Ctesias, Indica [5]
  • Ctesias’ parrot
    • … of the parrot about as large as a hawk, which has a human tongue and voice, a dark red beak, a black beard, and blue feathers up to the neck, which is red like cinnabar. It speaks Indian like a native, and if taught Greek, speaks Greek.
      • Tall tales abound in Ctesias’ Indica, as scholars have not hesitated to emphasize, heaping ridicule on the author’s enthusiasm for the fantastic and on his apparent lack of regard for the truth. However, by no means everything in the work is absurd or wrong, and marvels too are no surprise. After all, as a resident of the Persian court for a number of years at the end of the fifth century B.C., Ctesias had seen items from India which would have been truly remarkable to Greeks of his time. He had seen, for example, elephants, which few Greeks before Alexander’s Asian campaigns had done, and, it should be added, much of what he says about these animals is quite correct. The following pages discuss what he relates of the bird which he calls the β…ττακκος, the parrot, or rather what Photius in a not entirely problem-free section of his summary of the work preserves of the original description. As with Ctesias’ account of the elephant, this is the first Greek description, so far as we know.[6]

Aristotle (384 v. Chr. – 322 v. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Aristotle, History of animals [7] [8]
  • The Indian bird
    • As a general rule alle birds with crooked talons are short-necked, flat-tongued, and disposed to mimicry. The Indian bird, the parrot, which is said to have a man’s tongue, answers to this description; and, by the way, after drinking wine, the parrot becomes saucier than ever.

Crinagoras of Mytilene (70 v. Chr. – 18 n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Crinagoras of Mytilene, The linguist parrot [9]
  • The linguist parrot
    • The linguist parrot flicked his flowery wings
      and changed his wicker cage for greener things,
      but constantly saluting Caesar’s fame
      kept on the hills the memory of his name.
      All these quick-learning fowls began to strive
      which should greet first the god that is alive.
      Orpheus commanded animals with a word:
      these birds sing ‘Caesar’ of their own accord.

Ovidius (43 v. Chr. – 17 n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Ovidius, Corinna [10]
  • Corinna
    • Parrot, the mimic, the winged one from India’s Orient,
      is dead – Go, birds, in a flock and follow him to the grave!
      Go, pious feathered ones, beat your breasts with your wings
      and mark your delicate cheeks with hard talons:
      tear out your shaggy plumage, instead of hair, in mourning:
      sound out your songs with long piping!
      Philomela, mourning the crime of the Thracian tyrant,
      the years of your mourning are complete:
      divert your lament to the death of a rare bird –
      Itys is a great but ancient reason for grief.
      All who balance in flight in the flowing air,
      and you, above others, his friend the turtle-dove, grieve!
      All your lives you were in perfect concord,
      and held firm in your faithfulness to the end.
      What the youth from Phocis was to Orestes of Argos,
      while she could be, Parrot, turtle-dove was to you.
      What worth now your loyalty, your rare form and colour,
      the clever way you altered the sound of your voice,
      what joy in the pleasure given you by our mistress? –
      Unhappy one, glory of birds, you’re certainly dead!
      You could dim emeralds matched to your fragile feathers,
      wearing a beak dyed scarlet spotted with saffron.
      No bird on earth could better copy a voice –
      or reply so well with words in a lisping tone!
      You were snatched by Envy – you who never made war:
      you were garrulous and a lover of gentle peace.
      Behold, quails live fighting amongst themselves:
      perhaps that’s why they frequently reach old age.
      Your food was little, compared with your love of talking
      you could never free your beak much for eating.
      Nuts were his diet, and poppy-seed made him sleep,
      and he drove away thirst with simple draughts of water.
      Gluttonous vultures may live and kites, tracing spirals
      in air, and jackdaws, informants of rain to come:
      and the raven detested by armed Minerva lives too –
      he whose strength can last out nine generations:
      but that loquacious mimic of the human voice,
      Parrot, the gift from the end of the earth, is dead!
      The best are always taken first by greedy hands:
      the worse make up a full span of years.
      Thersites saw Protesilaus’s sad funeral,
      and Hector was ashes while his brothers lived.
      Why recall the pious prayers of my frightened girl for you –
      prayers that a stormy south wind blew out to sea?
      The seventh dawn came with nothing there beyond,
      and Fate held an empty spool of thread for you.
      Yet still the words from his listless beak astonished:
      dying his tongue cried: ‘Corinna, farewell!’
      A grove of dark holm oaks leafs beneath an Elysian slope,
      the damp earth green with everlasting grass.
      If you can believe it, they say there’s a place there
      for pious birds, from which ominous ones are barred.
      There innocuous swans browse far and wide
      and the phoenix lives there, unique immortal bird:
      There Juno’s peacock displays his tail-feathers,
      and the dove lovingly bills and coos.
      Parrot gaining a place among those trees
      translates the pious birds in his own words.
      A tumulus holds his bones – a tumulus fitting his size –
      whose little stone carries lines appropriate for him:
      ‘His grave holds one who pleased his mistress:
      his speech to me was cleverer than other birds’.

      • A playful parody of a funeral poem is made in the sixth elegy. Corinna’s pet bird, a parrot, has died. The poet calls all birds, mythical and historical, to its funeral. Ovid again mocks epic poems (such as the Iliad) in which, upon the death of a hero, all women are called to wail and tear their faces in grief. Ovid then uses two mythological references to add to the ridiculousness of this poem. Because the parrot was a talking bird, Philomel and Tereus are mentioned. Philomel was raped by Tereus, who then cut out her tongue to prevent her from telling of the crime. The tongue imagery from the previous poem is now not only made silly because of the talking parrot, but horrible because of the tragic myth. Another horrific story from the myth is then mentioned, also related to the mouth. Tereus’s son with Philomel’s sister Procne is killed by his own mother (Procne) and served to his father (Tereus) at dinner. This is Procne’s revenge for her sister’s rape and her husband’s infidelity. Procne is then turned into a sparrow. This stomach-turning story is an example of (what one might call Ovid’s at times twisted) sense of humor, and is also another reflection of the complete folly of the poet’s and Corinna’s affair.[11]

Petronius (27 – 65)

  • Polly Studies: Petronius, Poems [12]
  • A parrot is speaking
    • My birthplace was India’s glowing shore, where the day returns in brilliance with fiery orb. Here I was born amid the worship of the gods, and exchanged my barbaric speech for the Latin tongue. O healer of Delphi, now dismiss thy swans; here is a voice more worthy to dwell within thy temple.

Persius (34 – 62)

  • Polly Studies: The Satires of Persius
  • Psitacco
    • Proloog (1-14)
    • Nec fonte labra prolui caballino,
    • nec in bicipiti somniasse Parnaso
      memini, ut repente sic poeta prodirem.
      Heliconidasque pallidamque Pirenen
      illis remitto, quorum imagines lambunt
      hederae sequaces: ipse semipaganus
      ad sacra vatum carmen adfero nostrum.
      quis expedivit psittaco suum chaere
      picamque docuit nostra verba conari?
      magister artis ingenique largitor
      venter, negatas artifex sequi voces;
      quod si dolosi spes refulserit nummi,
      corvos poetas et poetridas picas
      cantare credas Pegaseium nectar.

      • I never drank of Hippocrene, never dreamed on Parnassus. The maids of Helicon and the waters of Pirene are meat and drink for my masters—the acknowledged classics—not for me, a poor lay-brother, with my humble, homely song (1-7). Others succeed: the parrot with his Greek, the pie with her Latin. They have not dreamed on Parnassus either; but they have a teacher—the great master Belly—and Sixpence is their Phoebus Apollo. Hark how they troll forth their notes! (8-14).[13]

Martialis (40 – 104)

  • Polly Studies: Martialis, Epigrammen [14]
  • Psittacus
    • Psittacus a vobis aliorum nomina discam
      Hoc didici per me, dicere, Caesar ave!

      • Like a parrot, I will learn other people’s names from you, but this I have learned by myself to say: Hail, Caesar!

Statius (45 – 96)

  • Polly Studies: Statius, Psittace dux volucrum [15]
  • Melior’s parrot
    • Parrot, parrot, king of birds, fluent favourite of thy master; parrot, skilled to mimic the accents of man, what power by too swift a fate has stilled thy voice? Poor thing, only yesterday, though doomed to die, thou hadst a place at our feast. Beyond the midnight we saw thee ranging the couches and tasting the good cheer. Greetings, too, and well-conned words thou hadst repeated. To-day the dateless silence of Death seals all that melody. Oh, tell no more the oft-told tale of Phaethon’s sisters. ’Tis not only the dying swan that sings its own death-hymn.
    • Ah, how spacious was thy dwelling-place! How radiant the ruddy dome! a row of silver bars set in ivory round about thee. Shrill rang the portals at the pecking of thy beak. Alas, to-day the doors speak their own vexation. Tenantless is that blissful prison; vanished the scolding voice that filled the princely mansion!
    • Let all scholar birds flock hither, unto whom Nature has granted the right divine of speech. Let the favourite of Phoebus utter a lament; the starling too, that forgets not to re-echo faithfully the accents it has heard; the woodpeckers that for rivalling the Muses suffered change; the partridge that links and repeats the words of man; the nightingale that warbles forlorn in her Thracian bower. Mourn, mourn ye birds together! Bear your dead companion to the funeral fire; and, one and all, learn ye this new dirge. ‘The Parrot, — the glory and the pride of the fowls of the air, the radiant Ruler of the East, — is dead, is dead. Whom neither the bird of Juno with jewelled plumage, nor the denizen of frozen Phasis, nor the Meleagrides, the prey of the Numidians in the rainy south, could surpass in beauty. The Parrot that had greeted kings, that had uttered the name of Caesar, that had played the part now of mourning friend, and now of gay companion, — so ready to repeat the message it had learned. When he was released from his cage, Melior never wanted for company. Yet not without honour is his passing to the Shades. With Eastern perfumes the pyre is kindled; fragrant is his delicate plumage with Arabian incense and saffron of Sicily. Untouched by the languor of old age he shall be borne a happier phoenix to a richer pyre.’

Plinius (61 – 112)

  • Polly Studies: Plinius, Natural History [16]
  • Pliny’s Parrot
    • The parrot, which comes from India, is a green bird with a red circlet around its neck. It can be taught to speak; it greets its master and repeats words said to it. Its head and beak are very hard. While being taught to speak it must be beaten on the head with an iron rod; its head is so hard that it will not feel lesser blows. Its feet are weak, so when it lands from flying it does so on its beak, and supports itself thus.
      • Conjure up an image of the ancient world. Do you see a betoga’d fellow beating a bird about the bonce with an iron bar? No? Then read your Pliny. Here he is, in the Natural History, telling us about parrots: “She hath an head as hard as is her beak: when she learns to speak, she must be beaten about the head with a rod of yron: for otherwise she careth for no blowes.” [17]

Apuleius (ca. 125 – ca. 180)

  • Polly Studies: Lucius Apuleius, Florida, XII
  • Psittacus avis Indiae avis est
    • Psittacus avis Indiae avis est; instar illi minimo minus quam columbarum, sed color non columbarum; non enim lacteus ille vel lividus vel utrumque, subluteus aut sparsus est, sed color psittaco viridis et intimis plumulis et extimis palmulis, nisi quod sola cervice distinguitur. Enimvero cervicula eius circulo mineo velut aurea torqui pari fulgoris circumactu cingitur et coronatur. Rostri prima duritia: cum in petram quampiam concitus altissimo volatu praecipitat, rostro se velut ancora excipit. Sed et capitis eadem duritia quae rostri. Cum sermonem nostrum cogitur aemulari, ferrea clavicula caput tunditur, imperium magistri ut persentiscat; haec discenti ferula est. Discit autem statim pullus usque ad duos aetatis suae annos, dum facile os, uti conformetur, dum tenera lingua, uti convibretur: senex autem captus et indocilis est et obliviosus. Verum ad disciplinam humani sermonis facilior est psittacus glande qui vescitur et cuius in pedibus ut hominis quini digituli numerantur. Non enim omnibus psittacis id insigne, sed illud omnibus proprium, quod eis lingua latior quam ceteris avibus; eo facilius verba hominis articulant patentiore plectro et palato. Id vero, quod didicit, ita similiter nobis canit vel potius eloquitur, ut, vocem si audias, hominem putes: nam corvum quidem si audias, idem conate non loqui. Verum enimvero et corvus et psittacus nihil aliud quam quod didicerunt pronuntiant. Si convicia docueris, conviciabitur diebus ac noctibus perstrepens maledictis: hoc illi carmen est, hanc putat cantionem. Vbi omnia quae didicit maledicta percensuit, denuo repetit eandem cantilenam. Si carere convicio velis, lingua excidenda est aut quam primum in silvas suas remittendus est.
      • The parrot is an Indian bird, in size very slightly smaller than a dove. But there is nothing dovelike in its hue. For it has nothing of the milky whiteness or dull blue, blended or distinct, nor yet of the pale yellow or iridescence that characterize the dove. The parrot is green from the roots of its feathers to their very tips, save only for the markings on the neck. For its tiny neck is girdled and crowned with a slender band of crimson like a collar of gold, which is of equal brilliance through all its extent. Its beak is extraordinarily hard. If after it has soared to a great height it swoops headlong on to some rock, it breaks the force of its fall with its beak, which it uses as an anchor. Its head is not less hard than its beak. When it is being taught to imitate human speech, it is beaten over the head with an iron wand, that it may recognize its master’s command. This is the rod of its school-days. It can be taught to speak from the day of its birth to its second year, while its mouth is still easily formed and its tongue sufficiently soft to learn the requisite modulations. On the other hand, if caught when it is old, it is hard to teach and forgets what it has learned. The parrot which is most easily taught the language of man is one that feeds on acorns and manlike has five toes on each foot. All parrots do not possess this last peculiarity, but there is one point which all have in common: their tongue is broader than that of any other bird. Wherefore they articulate human words more easily owing to the size of their palate and the organ of speech. When it has learnt anything, it sings or rather speaks it out with such perfect imitation that, if you should hear it, you would think a man was speaking; on the contrary if you hear a crow attempting to speak, you would still call the result croaking rather than speech. But crow and parrot are alike in this; they can only utter words that they have been taught. Teach a parrot to curse and it will curse continually, making night and day hideous with its imprecations. Cursing becomes its natural note and its ideal of melody. When it has repeated all its curses, it repeats the same strain again. Should you desire to rid yourself of its bad language, you must either cut out its tongue or send it back as soon as possible to its native woods.[18]

Oppianus (2e eeuw n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Oppianus, Cynegetica, 2.408-9.[19]
  • The grass-hued bird
    • How again does the Bustard of the shaggy ear rejoice in the swift Horse! The Parrot again and the Wolf herd together; for Wolves have ever a passion for the grass-hued bird. Mighty Love, how great art thou! how infinite thy might! how many things dost thou devise and ordain, how many, mighty spirit, are thy sports! The earth is steadfast: yet is it shaken by thy shafts. Unstable is the sea: yet thou dost make it fast. Thou comest unto the upper air and high Olympus is afraid before thee. All things fear thee, wide heaven above and all that is beneath the earth and the lamentable tribes of the dead, who, though they have drained with their lips the oblivious water of Lethe, still tremble before thee.

Philostratus (ca. 170 – ca. 247)

  • Polly Studies: Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius: 1.7-10
  • Zeus help you
    • And this man was Euxenus from the town of Heraclea in Pontus, and he knew the principles of Pythagoras just as birds know what they learn from men; for the birds will wish you “farewell,” and say “Good day” or “Zeus help you,” and such like, without understanding what they say and without any real sympathy for mankind, merely because they have been trained to move their tongue in a certain manner.[20]

Solinus (3e eeuw n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Gaius Julius Solinus, Mirabilibus Mundi [21]
  • Rostri tanta duritia
    • Sola India mittit avem psittacum, colore viridem, torque puniceo, cujus rostri tanta duritia est, ut quum e sublimi præcipitat in saxum, nisu se oris excipiat, et quodam quasi fundamento utatur extraordinariæ firmitatis; caput vero tam valens, ut si quando ad discendum plagis siet admonendus, nam studet, ut quod homines alloquatur, ferrea clavicula sit verberandus. Dum in pullo est, atque adeo intra alterum ætatis suæ annum, quæ monstrata sunt, et citius discit, et retinet tenacius; major pullo, est et obliviosus, et indocilis. Inter nobiles et ignobiles discretionem digitorum facit numerus; qui præstant, quinos in pedes habent digitos, ceteri ternos; lingua lata, multoque latior quam ceteris avibus: unde perficitur ut articulata verba penitus eloquatur. Quod ingenium ita Romæ deliciæ miratæ sunt, ut barbaris psittacos mercem fecerint.

Ambrosius (339 – 397)

  • Polly Studies: Ambrosius, Hexaemeron [22]
  • Vox psittaci
    • Aliae aves ad manum se subiiciunt, et mensae herili assuescunt, tactuque mulcentur: aliae formidant: aliae iisdem quibus homines domiciliis delectantur: aliae secretam in desertis vitam diligunt, quae requirendi sibi victus difficultatem libertatis amore compensant. Aliae vocibus tantum strepunt: aliae canoro delectant suavique modulamine. Quaedam ex natura, al iae ex institutione diversarum vocum obloquuntur discrimina; ut hominem putes locutum, cum locuta sit avis. Quam dulcis merularum, quam expressa vox psittaci est! Sunt etiam aliae simplices, ut columbae: aliae astutae, ut perdices: gallus iactantior, pavus speciosior. Sunt etiam vitae in avibus et operum diversitates; ut aliae ament in commune consulere, et collatis viribus velut quamdam curare rempublicam, et tamquam sub rege vivere: aliae sibi quaeque prospicere, imperium recusare, et, si capiantur, indigno velint exire servitio.

Physiologus (3e of 4e eeuw n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Physiologus
  • Physiologus – Der Papagei
    • Am Beispiel des Papageien läßt sich die frühchristliche Deutung der Tiere trefflich veranschaulichen. Der Papagei trägt im Griechischen den Namen (p)sittakos, woher sich das deutsche Wort Sittich herleitet. Er hat seine Heimat in Indien und ist im spätantiken Mittelmeerraum ein beliebter Luxusvogel. Wir sehen ihn auf zahlreichen antiken Wandgemälden, Mosaiken, Bronzen und Gemmen, vor allem jedoch in zahlreichen frühchristlichen Kirchen, besonders auf den Bildern der Fußböden. Der Physiologus beschreibt den Papagei als jenen Vogel, der gekonnt die Stimme des Menschen nachzuahmen vermag, ja, sich sogar wie ein Mensch unterhält. Auf den Kirchenvater Basileios bezieht sich der Physiologus, wenn er den Christen auffordert, er solle die Stimme der Apostel nachbilden, um Gott zu preisen, und den Wandel der Gerechten nachahmen, um deren Herrlichkeit zu erlangen. Die Art und Weise, wie der Papagei das Sprechen lernt, wird vom Physiologus und den frühchristlichen Theologen mit einem christologischen Inhalt belegt. Der Papagei lernt nämlich das Sprechen dadurch, daß er auf einen Spiegel schaut, doch hinter diesem steht ein Mensch und spricht den Papagei von dort her an, so daß er durch einen Artgenossen im Spiegel die menschliche Sprache erlernt. Nicht anders hat es Christus gemacht. Er wurde, obwohl er Gottes Sohn ist, ein Mensch, damit wir – wie in einem Spiegel – durch einen menschlichen Artgenossen die göttliche Sprache erlernen. Bei Ephräm dem Syrer heißt es hierzu in einem seiner Hymnen:

Der Mensch, der Sprechen einem Vogel lehrt,
verbirgt sich hinter einem Spiegel, wenn er lehrt.
Wenn der Vogel sich dem Sprechen zuwendet,
findet er vor seinen Augen sein Bild
und meint, daß sein Genosse mit ihm spreche.
Sein Bild ist vor ihm aufgerichtet,
damit er dadurch die Sprache lerne.Jener Vogel ist dem Menschen verwandt.
Deshalb hat Christus sich verwandelt in einen Fremden
und gelehrt; durch den Menschen sprach er mit dem Menschen.
Die Wesenheit, die in allem über alles erhaben ist,
hat in ihrer Liebe ihre Erhabenheit herabgeneigt.
Unsere Gewohnheiten erwarb sie von uns
und mühte sich in allem, um alle heimzuführen.
Er zeigte sich an einem Ort und war überall.
Wir wähnten er sei hier, doch er war die Fülle des Alls.
Er wurde klein, um uns zu genügen;
er wurde groß, um uns zu erheben.
Wäre er klein geworden, doch nicht groß,
würde er uns klein und ehrlos gelten,
weil für schwach gehalten; darum wurde er auch groß.
Zwei Lehren wollte er uns geben, daß er war und nicht war.
Er schuf in seiner Liebe sich
das Antlitz seiner Knechte, damit sie ihn schauten.
Damit wir aber nicht Schaden nähmen und wähnten, er sei so,
ging er von Gestalt zu Gestalt, um uns zu lehren,
er habe keine Gestalt. Obwohl er nicht verließ
die menschliche Gestalt, verließ er sie doch durch seinen Wandel.

Am Beispiel des Papageis wird deutlich, wie das Tier in der frühchristlichen Glaubensverkündigung in Entsprechung zum Menschen gesehen wird und sogar einen christologischen Inhalt annehmen kann.[23]

Apicius (4e/5e eeuw n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Marcus Gavius Apicius, De Re Coquinaria [24]
  • Idem facies et in psittaco
    • Phoenicopterum eliberas, lauas, ornas, includis in caccabum, adicies aquam, salem, anethum et aceti modicum. Dimidia coctura alligas fasciculum porri et coriandri, ut coquatur. Prope cocturam defritum mittis, coloras. Adicies in mortarium piper, cuminum, coriandrum, laseris radicem, mentam, rutam, fricabis, suffundis acetum, adicies caryotam, ius de suo sibi perfundis. Reexinanies in eundem caccabum, amulo obligas, ius perfundis et inferes. Idem facies et in psittaco.
      • Stroop de flamingo, was, bind op, doe in een pan, voeg water toe, zout, dille en een beetje azijn. Halverwege de kooktijd bind je een bosje prei en koriander bij elkaar en laat je dat meekoken. Tegen het einde van de kooktijd doe je er defritum bij om het te kleuren. Doe in de vijzel peper, koriander, duivelsdrek, munt, wijnruit, wrijf fijn, giet er azijn bij, voeg dadels uit Karië toe, overgiet met kooknat. Doe het terug in dezelfde pan, bind met zetmeel, giet de saus erover en dien op. Dezelfde saus kun je ook maken voor papegaai.

Macrobius (4e/5e eeuw n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Saturnalia [25]
  • Greetings
    • Among those who welcomed Augustus on his return in state from his victory at Actium was a man with a raven which he had taught to say: “Greetings to Caesar, our victorious commander.” Augustus was charmed by this compliment and gave the man twenty thousand sesterces for the bird. But the bird’s trainer had a partner, and, when none of this large sum of money had come his way, he told the Emperor that the man had another raven and suggested that he should be made to produce it as well. The bird was produced and repeated the words which it had been taught to say: they were: “Greetings to Antony, our victorious commander.” Augustus, however, instead of being at all angry, simply told the first man to share the money with his mate. He was greeted in a similar way by a parrot, and he ordered that bird to be bought and a magpie too, which he fancied for the same trick. These examples encouraged a poor cobbler to try to train a raven to repeat a like form of greeting, but the bird remained dumb, and the man ruined by the cost incurred, used often to say to it: “Nothing to show for the trouble and expense.” One day, however, the raven began to repeat its lesson, and Augustus as he was passing heard the greeting. “I get enough of such greetings at home,” he replied. But the bird also recalled the words of his master’s customary lament and added: “Nothing to show for the trouble and expense.” This made Augustus roar with laugh, and he ordered the bird to be bought giving more for it than he had given for any of the others.

Isaac of Antioch (5e eeuw n. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Isaac of Antioch, The Memra on the Parrot
  • “Who was crucified for us”
    • Some time in the 470s, Peter the Fuller, a hotly contested Monophysite patriarch of Antioch, deliberately added a phrase to the traditional litany of praise which addressed Christ as God. To the phrase, “Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal One,” he added “Who was crucified for us.” To upholders of Chalcedonian orthodoxy, this addition betrayed a blasphemous confusion of thought. No one could say that God Himself had died on the cross. … … Crowds in the great courtyard outside the principal church of Antioch were held spellbound when a specially trained parrot, his wings outstretched in the gesture of the Crucified, and undaunted by Chalcedonian Establishment, squawked the anthem with its provocative addition. Isaac of Antioch wrote an entire poem in Syriac on the incident. Would that every Christian thought like that learned and intrepid bird. The addition “Who was crucified for us” guaranteed that the Monophysite God was a God intimately connected to the afflicted world.[26]

Isidorus van Sevilla (560 – 636)

  • Polly Studies: Isidorus van Sevilla, Etymologiae [27]
  • Caesar have
    • Psittacus Indiae litoribus gignitur, colore vividi, torque puniceo, grandi lingea et ceteris avibus latiore. Unde et articulata verba exprimit, ita ut si eam non videris, hominem loqui putes. Ex atura autem salutat dicens: „have“ vel Cetera nomina institutione discit. Hinc est illud: Psittacus a vobis aliorum nomina discam; Hoc didici per me dicese: „Caesar have“.
      • The parrot comes from the coasts of India. It is green with a purple collar and tongue that is broader than that of other birds. It can speak articulated words, so that if you did not see it you would think it was a person speaking. By nature it greets people by saying “Ave”; from this came the saying I a parrot will learn to say the names of others from you, but I learned on my own to say “Hail Caesar”.

Hugo de Folieto (ca. 1100 – ca. 1174)

  • Polly Studies: Hugo de Folieto, De bestiis et aliis rebus [28]
  • De psittaco
    • Sola India mittit psittacum, colore viridi, torque punicea, grandi lingua, et ceteris avibus latiore, unde et articulata verba exprimit, ita ut si eam non videris, hominem loqui putes. Ex natura autem salutat, diceus ave, vel xarpe. Cetera nomina ex institutione discit, unde illud Martialis: Hoc per me didici dicere: ‘Caesar ave’.

Mattheus van Vendôme (ca. 1130 – ca. 1200)

  • Polly studies: Mattheus van Vendôme, Ars Versificatoria[29]
  • Lingua dégénérante
    • Psitacus exclamât presentatura triumphis Cesareis, lingua dégénérante, « vale ».

Pseudo-Hugh of Saint Victor (12e eeuw)

  • Parrot art research underway [30]
    • Hugh of Saint Victor’s only relationship to the bestiary genre was the mistaken attribution to him of of the works of another Hugh: Hugh of Fouilloy (or Hugo of Folieto). In some cases, the attribution is in the manuscript itself. The error was perpetuated by later print editions, particularly that of Migne in his Patrologia Latina. Though Hugh of Saint Victor wrote many texts, none were explicitly bestiary-related.[31]

Alexander of Neckam (1157 – 1217)

  • Polly Studies: Alexander of Neckam, Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew upon you [32]
  • Ye mountains of Gilboa
    • Alexander Neckam, again, has a story of the artfulness of the parrot. You may recollect that in his lamentation over Saul and Jonathan, David said, “Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew upon you,” and what follows. There is in consequence no dew nor rain upon those hills, and parrots, which are susceptible to damp, breed there in large numbers. Now a knight in Britain had a parrot, a great favourite of the family, for many years, and this knight went on crusade, and, like the Amalekite, happening by chance upon Mount Gilboa, he saw there a parrot which strongly reminded him of his own—so much so that he said to it, “Our parrot, which is just like you, in his cage at home, sends you greetings.” No sooner had he uttered these words than the strange parrot fell to the ground, to all appearance dead. The knight was a good deal surprised, and when he returned home, told his family the incident, in the presence of his own parrot, which listened attentively to the story, and when the climax was reached uttered a loud cry and fell over—again to all appearance lifeless. Great was the lamentation of the family: they took the bird out of the cage and laid it down in the open air on the chance of its recovery. To their horror and discomfiture the parrot instantly spread its wings and flew off, presumably to rejoin its companion on Mount Gilboa. The whole thing had been a put-up job, exactly how contrived it is not for me to guess. But no one, I am sure, who has observed the depths of guile that lurk in a parrot’s eye can refuse credence to this anecdote.[33]

Vincent of Beauvais (1190 – 1264)

  • Polly Studies: Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Naturale [34]
  • Sed pluvia moritur
    • Psittacus aquas alias quocunque modo patitur, sed pluvia moritur.
    • And also … The parrot was reputated to be luxurious, and fond of wine.

Albertus Magnus (ca. 1200 – 1280)

  • Polly Studies: Albertus Magnus, De animalibus libri [35]
  • Psytacus est avis viridis tota
    • Psytacus est avis viridis tota, torque aliquantulum coloris aurei. In India sunt et in Arabia et in desertis calidorum climatum in quibus parum pluit inveniuntur. Linguae est latae et longae et ideo optime format voces articulatas quando a iuventute didicerit. Rostrum habet curvum et fortissimum ita quod etiam in lapidem cum ipso impingat et se rostro quasi fundamento excipiat. In capite etiam multum valet et cum disciplinatur in capite clavicula ferrea percutitur. Pede in comedendo pro manu utitur, et dum bibit, pedibus suspensus caudam in altum et caput inferius ad aquam porrigit quia caudam multum custodit et eam saepe rostro componit. Aquam pluviae non sustinet, sed alias aquas bibit et sustinet et ideo in montibus Gelboe in quibus raro pluit nidificare dicitur.

Thomas De Cantimpré (1201 – 1272)

  • Polly Studies: Thomas De Cantimpré, De natura rerum [36]
  • Salut
    • Le perroquet a naturellement une voix qui lui permet de saluer les empereurs? Lorsque Charlemagne traversait les étendues arides du centre de la Grèce, il rencontra quelques perroquets. Ceux-ci le saluèrent, comme il se doit en langue grecque, lui disant: Salut, empereur! Les événements futurs allaient prouver le bien-fondé de ces salutations de la part des oiseaux, puisque Charlemagne, qui n’était à l’époque que roi de France, allait devenir Empereur du saint Empire catholique.
      • Un gentilhomme possédait un perroquet, qu’il envoya comme présent au pape Léon. Chaque fois que le perroquet rencontrait un passant durant son voyage, il lui criait: Je vais chez le pape, je vais chez le pape. Et dès qu’il fut arrivé à destination et mis en présence du pape, l’oiseau cria Salut, pape Léon.

Konrad von Würzburg(? – 1287)

  • Polly Studies: Konrad von Würzburg, Die Goldene Schmiede [37]
  • Wilde Sitticus
    • Wie gar der wilde Sitticus
      Grün sam ein gras erluhte
      Er wird doch seiten fuhte
      Von regen noch von towe
      Dem tet geliche. frowe
      Die magetliche güte
      Daz von unkeuscher flute
      Nie wart genetzet hares gros
      Swi gar dir herze wandel blog
      In frischer Jugent grünet
      Daz die gebar versunet
      Mit Got ins allgemeine;
      So gar unmazen reine
      Was und schein die magetheit
      Die kein Endete nie erleit
      Die von broden flüsche vert
      Und war als ein grün wert
      Der tugent blum und ir bleter.

      • Die Goldene Schmiede ist ein faszinierendes Dokument mittelalterlicher Dichtkunst. Konrad von Würzburg, einer der bedeutendsten Dichter des 13. Jahrhunderts, verwebt die Vorstellungswelt der gesamten mariologischen Tradition zu einem kunstvollen Marienpreislied: In der ‘Schmiede seines Herzens will er ein kostbares Gedicht aus Gold schmelzen und mit Edelsteinen – mit ‘Karfunkel-Sinn – ausschmücken.[38]
      • Konrad von Würzburg, mittelhochd. Dichter des 13. Jahrh., war bürgerlicher Abkunft. Aus der Heimat vertrieben, durchzog K. Deutschland als armer, wandernder Sänger, lebte von seiner Kunst und ließ sich zuletzt in Basel nieder. Dort starb er 31. Aug. 1287 und ward mit seiner Frau und seinen Töchtern an der Apsis der Marien-Magdalenenkirche begraben. K. ist wegen der sprachlichen Zierlichkeit und Reinheit wie der außerordentlichen metrischen Korrektheit seiner Dichtungen als der bedeutendste Vertreter der mittelhochdeutschen Spätlingsdichtung zu betrachten. Er war in der lyrischen, epischen und didaktischen Dichtung thätig und behandelte ebensowohl die heimisch-volkstümliche wie die ausländisch-ritterliche Sage; weltliche, geistliche und ausschließlich religiöse Stoffe fesselten ihn abwechselnd.[39]

Brunetto Latino (ca. 1220 – 1294)

  • Polly Studies: Brunetto Latino, Li Livres dou Tresor [40]
  • Tresor
    • Pappagallo è una generazione d’uccelli verde, e hanno il becco torto a modo di sparviere, e hanno maggior lingua e la più grossa che nessuno altro uccello, secondo la sua grandezza, perchè egli dice parole articolato, sì come l’uomo, se gli è insegnato l’anno ch’egli nasce, perchè dal primo anno innanzi sono sì duri e sì ingrossati, che non imprendono cosa che sia loro insegnata, e sì ‘l debbe l’uomo castigare con una piccola verghetta di ferro. E dicono quelli d’India, che non ha in nessuna part se non in India. E di sua natura salutano secondo il linguaggio di quella terra. E quelli che hanno cinque dita sono più nobili; e quelli cha hanno tre sono di vile lignaggio. e tutta sua forza hanno nel becco e nel capo. E tutti i colpi e cadute ricevano nel capo s’elli non li possono ischifare.

Jacob van Maerlant (ca. 1235 – ca. 1300)

  • Polly Studies: Jacob van Maerlant, Der naturen bloeme [41]
  • Papegaaien drinken graag wijn
    • Presitacus dat dinke mi sijn
      die pape gaie dar ons solijn
      ende Jacob scriuen in haren doene
      een uoghel est van plumen groene
      om den als den rinc van plumen
      gheuarwet als van goutscumen
      ene tonghe groet ende breet
      dar hi mede formert yreet
      woerde als oft .i. mensche ware
      jn den ersten of in den andren jare
      so sijnsi te lerne best
      ende ontouden dat men em vest
      den bec ebben si so crum ende so starc
      al vielen si van oghen vp .i. sarc
      si souden hem up den bec ontfaen
      hare houet es ard sonder waen
      dat mense met enen ysere slaet
      als mense wil duinghen dat soet verstaet
      te sprekene na des menschen wise
      haren poet stecsoe in de spise
      jn den bec dits wonder mee
      jnt gheberchte van gelboe
      segmen dat hi broedens pliet
      dar het selden reint of niet
      want die rein es hare doot
      dien stert queket so met gnouchten groot
      ende strikene dicke ende makene fijn
      ende sere gherne drinken si wijn
      men lest ins coninc karles tiden
      dat hi wilen soude liden
      dort wout te grieken ende sijn here
      om te varne ouer mere
      papen gaihen camen tier stont
      ende seider keiser vare ghesont
      doe was hi coninc ywarlike
      van der cronen van vrankerike
      ende hi wart romsch keiser der nar
      dus worden hare warde war
      den paus lewen lese wi mede
      gaf .i. man vp oueschede
      enen papegay sprac ynouch
      ende doe mense ten paus drouch
      ende soe was up hare vard
      soe sprac jc vare ten paus ward
      ende terst dat soe den paus sach
      omboet soe hem goeden dach
      achter .i. ii. warf te samen
      dese dinc so wel den paus bequamen
      dat hi dicken sonderlinghen
      der jeghen sprac om dach cortinghe
      nv het van der p. vte es
      ghi sult vort oren van der .s.

      • (Psittacus, de papegaai, wordt beschreven door Solinus en Jacobus van Vitry. Papegaaien hebben groene veren en een ring als van bladgoud rond hun hals. Door hun grote, brede tong kunnen ze woorden vormen op dezelfde manier als mensen. Wanneer ze een of twee jaar oud zijn, leren ze het makkelijkst en onthouden ze alles wat hun wordt ingeprent. Hun snavel is zo krom en sterk, dat ze er hun val mee kunnen breken als ze van grote hoogte op een rotsblok vallen. Hun kop is zo hard, dat het nodig is om ze met een stuk ijzer te slaan wanneer ze leren praten. Papegaaien gebruiken hun poten om voedsel in hun bek te steken. Ze broeden in de bergen van Gilboa, waar het zelden of nooit regent, omdat ze doodgaan als ze nat worden. Papegaaien besteden veel zorg aan hun staart, die ze vaak opstrijken en kammen met hun snavel. Ze drinken graag wijn. Toen Karel de Grote op een keer met zijn leger door de wildernis van Griekenland trok om de zee over te steken, kwamen er papegaaien naar hem toe die zeiden: ‘Gegroet, keizer!’ Op dat moment was Karel koning van heel Frankrijk, pas daarna werd hij Rooms-keizer: zo kwam de voorspelling van de papegaaien uit. Paus Leo ontving van iemand als beleefdheidsgeschenk een papegaai die honderd uit praatte. Onderweg naar de paus zei de vogel: ‘Ik ga naar de paus,’ en zodra hij de paus zag, begroette hij hem twee keer achter elkaar. Dit viel bij de paus zo in de smaak, dat hij zich daarna graag vermaakte door tegen zijn papegaai te praten.)

 Petrus Berchorius (ca. 1290 – 1362)

  • Polly Studies: Petrus Berchorius, Reductorium morale [42]
  • Ein willüstiger Vogel
    • Der Papagei ist ein willüstiger Vogel, der sich am Anblick junger Mädchen erfreut, gern Wein trinkt, In Rausch gerät und auch gern Küsst.

Pierre de Beauvais (13e eeuw)

  • Polly Studies: Bestiaire of Pierre de Beauvais [43]
  • D’un oisel qui est apelés papegai.
    • Phisiologes dist qu’il en i a de II manieres, et li uns sont asés plus gentils que li autre. Si nos fait entendre que li vilain ont III dois a lor piés, et les gentils en ont V a lor piés ; et ben sèvent parler s’on les aprent. Si est uns petit oiseaus I poi graindre que une pie, et si a longhe keue comme de pie ; et il est tos vers a I poi de bloue color entremellé. Si a corbe bec et tort comme espreviers. Si het moult la pluie, et il set tant de sa nature que il s’en garde ben que pluie ne grant tempeste ne le souprent defors le bois là [où] il hante et converse. Quer il est de tel nature que pluie li grieve moult, et que sa color moult enlaidist ; et por ce s’en garde comme sages oiseaus.
    • Ensi est à entendre del home. Li uns est asez plus gentieus que li autres : c’est à entendre esperituelement à vivre et Deu cremir et servir totes ores et adès. Li hom qui si vit est li gentieus papegai. Cil fuit la pluie et la tempeste d’infer ; cist ne s’embat mie defors le bos, il ne puet estre sorpris de tempeste. Li hom qui pèce c’est li vilains papegais ; et cist est sopris en pluie et tempeste que moult li grieve et moult le enlaidist et tue par force d’orage. Il ne set eskiver la tempeste, il est trop loins de bos. C’est à entendre qu’il est sopris en péchié à sa fin, et muert en péchié et est perdus ; et demore à tos jors en la tempeste d’infer entre diables. (Victorin, 2008) [44]

 Ulrich von Lilienfeld (ca. 1300 – ca.1350)

  • Polly Studies: Ulrich von Lilienfeld , Concordantiae Caritatis [45]
  • Der Papagei trinkt gerne Wein
    • Der Papagei trinkt gerne Wein und weidet sich am Anblick schöner Jungfrauen.
    • Der Papagei stirbt, wenn sein Gefieder vom Regen naß wird.
      • (Concordantiae caritatis is the most complete typological collection of the Middle Ages. It comprises 238 typological units with an encyclopedic intention. Not only is it extraordinary because of its extent; it is also unique from the aspect of its content. Natural phenomena and scenes taken from the lives of saints, which, like that of Christ, serve as moral examples, became integral parts of its typological system. The typological units of Concordantiae caritatis each take up two facing pages. On the right we can read the text, while the illustrations are placed on the left. Every typological unit is made up of five parts. The main scene is found at the centre on the top of the page with two prototypes from the Old Testament below it, and two natural parallels at the bottom of the page. The work concludes with a “picture catechism” the text of which is partly in German.) [46]

 John Mandeville (ca.1300 – na 1375)

  • Polly Studies: Sir John Mandeville, Travels [47]
  • Popinjays
    • And there [in the kingdom of Prester John] be many popinjays [parrots], that they clepe psittakes their language. And they speak of their proper nature, and salute men that go through the deserts, and speak to them as apertly as though it were a man. And they that speak well have a large tongue, and have five toes upon a foot. And there be also of another manner, that have but three toes upon a foot, and they speak not, or but little, for they can not but cry.

Konrad von Megenberg (1309 – 1374)

  • Polly Studies: Konrad von Megenberg, Buch der Natur [48]
  • Von dem Sittich
    • Psittacus heißt der Sittich. Das ist ein Vogel im Land Indien, wie Jacobus und Solinus sagen. Er ist von grüner Farbe, aber um den Hals ist er rot und fast goldfarben. Er hat eine große, breite Zunge und deshalb bringt er auch einzelne Worte wie ein Mensch hervor, und zwar so vollkommen, daß man, wenn man ihn nicht sähe, glauben würde, er sei ein Mensch. Er grüßt den Menschen und sagt Ave chere, das heißt in welcher Sprache: Gott grüßt dich, Lieber; oder er grüßt mit anderen Worten, je nachdem wie er es gelernt hat. Jedoch lernt er das meiste in dem ersten oder zweiten Jahr und behält die Worte am längsten. Der Schnabel des Vogels ist so hart, daß er sich damit von einem harten Stein wegdrücken kann, wenn man ihn darauf wirft. Er hat auch so einen harten Kopf, daß ihn die Leute mit eisernen Ruten schlagen müssen, wenn sie ihn zwingen wollen, menschliche Sprache zu lernen. Er nimmt seine Nahrung mit seinem Fuß wie ein Mensch mit seiner Hand auf. Er nistet auf dem Berg Gelboe, weil es da niemals regnet, denn er kann Regen nicht ertragen. Obwohl er anderes Wasser ertragen kann, stirbt er durch Regenwasser. Er gibt sorgfältig auf seinen Schwanz Acht. Die alleredelsten haben jeweils fünf Zehen an den Füßen, aber die nicht edlen haben nur drei Zehen. Aristoteles sagt, daß der Sittich gerne Wein trinke und ein sehr unkeuscher Vogel sei; das ist kein Wunder, denn der Wein ist eine Ursache der Unkeuschheit. Aristoteles sagt auch, daß der Vogel, wenn er von dem Wein trunken ist, gerne Jungfrauen ansehe und sich an ihrem Anblick erfreue.
      • Konrad von Megenberg, deutscher Autor aus der ersten Hälfte des 14. Jahrh., verfaßte außer andern (auch politischen) Schriften das “Buch der Natur”, eine allgemeine, schon ziemlich systematische Naturgeschichte, die als Beleg der Kenntnisse der damaligen Zeit interessant und zugleich durch Anführung von vielerlei Sagen u. dgl. kulturgeschichtlich wichtig ist. Das Werk, um 1349-51 geschrieben, erschien zuerst ohne Ort und Jahr in Quart, dann Augsburg 1475 u. öfter (neu hrsg. von Pfeiffer, Stuttg. 1861).[49]
      • The Buch der Natur is the work of the polymath Conrad von Megenberg. He took Thomas of Cantimpré’s De natura rerum as his starting point, translating it into German and considerably augmenting and enlarging it; Conrad himself states that he has increased its material by one-third. He set out to provide a compendium of knowledge of all God’s creation, and treats of astronomy, meterology, human anatomy, zoology, botany, ornithology, herpitology, metals, stones and minerals, and even mythical beasts and monsters. He gives medical uses for many plants and minerals, and the work often functioned as a pharmacology. Conrad also explicates the allegorical meaning of the natural world as an aid to preachers, and even relates some areas to contemporary political issues. Its utility and popularity are evident in the 100 surviving manuscripts and six 15th-century printed editions.[50]

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 – 1375)

  • Polly Studies: Giovanni Boccaccio, Genealogia [51]
  • On Psittacus, son of Deucalion
    • Psittacus was the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, as Theodontius says. Imbued with the teachings of his grandfather Prometheus, he went to Ethiopia, where he was held in the greatest veneration, and when he had lived to an advanced age, he prayed to be removed from human affairs. In response to this prayers the gods easily transformed him into the bird named after him.
      I believe the reason for this fiction is the fame of his name and virtue, which, although he died in his gray years, lasted in perpetual viridity – like those birds that are always green. There were those who believed that this Psittacus was said to be one of the seven sages, but Theodontius says he was much more ancient.
  • Parrot art research underway
    • Παπαγάλος Lesbos (6.Jahrh.), (…); zu Psittich.[52]
    • Psittakos, Psittakē, Bittakos, Byttakos, Sittakē, Sittakos, Sittas (ψιττακός, ψιττάκη, βίττακος, βύττακος, σιττάκη, σιττακός, σίττας G, psittacus, sittace L) …[53] [54]
    • Pittakos van Mytilene (Oudgrieks: Πιττακὸς ὁ Μυτιληναῖος of Πιττακὸς ὁ Λέσβιος) (circa 640 v. Chr. – 568 v. Chr.) was de zoon van Hurradios, en één van de Zeven Wijzen. Hij was vermoedelijk van aristocratische afkomst daar zijn moeder een adellijke dame van het eiland Lesbos was en zijn vader uit midden of hoogste klasse in Thracië. Politieke tegenstanders meenden echter dat hij van nederige afkomst was en een ongelukkige jeugd kende. Hij zou een autodidact geweest zijn.
    • De eerste vermelding van een papegaai in de griekse literatuur is van Ctesias (405-395), which he calls the β…ττακκος …

Johannes de Cuba (ca. 1430 – ca. 1503)

  • Polly Studies: Le Jardin de Santé, Deuxième traité: des Oiseaux, de Jean de Cuba.[55]
  • Chapitre .cij. De psitaco Papegault.
    • Psitacus.
    • Ysidore. Psitacus est engendré es rivage de Ynde, de couleur verte, et a ung chappeau sur le jaune, grande langue et plus large que nul des autres oyseaulx, par quoy il parle moult distinctement car se tu ne le voyoie tu cuyderois que ce fust ung homme. Il salue de sa nature disant “ave” ou “frere”. Les autres parolles il apprent par instruction ca et la. Et est dit en parolle de Psitacus qu’il est appellé en françois Papegault, comme se luy mesmes parloit disant. J’aprendray de vous le nom des autres, mais j’ay aprins par moy, dire Cesar. Ave. Je te salue.
    • Solin. Inde seulement nous envoye Psitacus. Il a en son bec si grant dureté que quant de hault il se precipite en une pierre il se retient a son bec.
    • Du Livre des natures des choses. Psitacus seuffre toutes manieres d’eaues, mais il meurt de pluye. Pour ce on dit qu’il fait son nid es montaignes de Gelboe, car en ce lieu il ne pleut jamais ou peu souvent. Il garde sa queue par grant estude et nectoye ses plumes souvent a son bec. Cest oyseau est moult luxurieux et boit voulentiers vin. Il se paist soy mesmes a son pied, et par icelluy porte sa viande a son bec, comme fait l’homme a la main.
    • Phisiologue. Psitacus, qui parmy le peuple communement est appellé paPagabio, c’est Papegault, c’est a dire principal ou noble. Il est dit gabio de eras, ou pource qu’il habite les parties de Ynde. Il habite voulentiers en la montaigne de Gelboe pour sa seicheresse, car il se meurt par grant habondence de moisteur. En la peau il est aucunement semblable au faulcon. Il a les plumes vertes, la poictrine ronde, le bec crochu de si grant force que s’elle n’est de verges de fer il rompt sa cage. Il ensuit la voix de l’homme. Il est de merveilleuse chaleur, et a de coustume baiser les domestiques. Il est abusé de sa propre forme en luy baillant ung mirouer. Et lors il est fait semblable a estre maintenant joyeux et maintenant dolent. Il se delecte a regarder vierges et s’en yvre de vin.[56]

Franciscus de Retza (ca. 1343 – 1427)

  • Polly Studies: Franciscus de Retza, Defensorium [57]
  • Psittacus
    • Psitacus a natura si ave dicereclaret
      quare Virgo pura per ave non generaret
    • (en ook …) [58]
      • Persius a prima satira psiticus
        a natura ave si dicere valet
        quare virgo pura per ave
        non generaret expientia

        • Het Defensorium inviolatae virginitatis Mariae van de dominicaan Franciscus de Retza (1343-1427) verzamelde argumenten voor de maagdelijkheid van Maria. Hij stelt dat het even aannemelijk is dat de papegaai mensen begroet met ‘Ave’ als dat Maria, na de Boodschap van de engel Gabriël, als maagd zou baren.[59]

Piero Valeriano (1477 – 1558)

  • Polly Studies: Piero Valeriano, Hieroglyphica [60]
  • Figuur 1  [61] (Translation: Parrot art research underway.)

Early Parrots (1)

Scipione Bargagli (1540 – 1612)

  • Scipione Bargagli, Dell’ imprese
  • Parrot art research underway.
    • De papegaai als naprater is niet alleen te vinden in Scipione Bargagli’s Dell’ imprese onder het motto ‘Aliena vocis aemula’ (hij bootst andermans stem na), maar ook in Joachim Camerarius’ Symbolorum emblematum ex volatilibus et insectis. Verder treft men een andere onnadenkende naprater, sprekend met een bedrieglijke schijn van geleerdheid, aan onder het opschrift ‘Refert dictata’ (hij zegt na wat hem voorgezegd is) in de Emblemas morales van Sebastián de Covarrubias Orozco …[62]

Cesare Ripa (ca. 1560 – ca. 1622)

  • Polly Studies: Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, Eloquenza [63]
    • Donna, vestita di rosso, nella man destra tiene un libro, con la sinistra mano alzata, e con l’indice, che è il secondo dito dell’istessa mano steso, e presso a’ suoi piedi vi sarà un libro, e sopra esso un Orologio da polvere; vi sarà ancora una gabbia aperta con un Papagallo sopra. Il Libro, come si è detto è indicio, che le parole sono l’istromento dell’eloquente; le quali però devono essere adoprate con ordine, e misura del tempo, essendo dal tempo misurata l’oratione, e da esso ricevendo i numeri, lo stile, la gratia, e parte dell’attitudine a persuadere. Il Papagallo è simbolo dell’eloquente, perché l’uno, e l’altro si rende meraviglioso con la lingua, e con le parole, l’uno imitando l’uomo, e l’altro la natura, che è regola de gli uomini, e ministra di Dio. Et si dipinge il Papagallo fuori della gabbia; perché l’eloquenza non è ristretta a termine alcuno, essendo l’ufficio suo di sapere dire probabilmente di qual si voglia materia proposta, come dice Cicerone nella Retorica, e gli altri, che hanno scritto prima, e dapoi. Il vestimento rosso dimostra, che l’oratione deve essere concitata, e affettuosa in modo, che ne risulti rossore nel viso, acciò che sia eloquente, e atta alla persuasione, conforme al detto d’Orazio:
      Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum ipsi tibi.
      Et questa assertione concitata si dimostra ancora nella mano, e nel dito alto, perché una buona parte dell’eloquenza consiste nel gesto dell’oratore.
    • Matrona vestita d’abito honesto, in capo avrà un Papagallo, e la mano destra aperta in fuora, e l’altra serrata, mostri di asconderla sotto le vesti. Questa figura è conforme all’opinione di Zenone Stoico, il quale diceva, che la Logica era somigliante a una mano chiusa, perché procede astutamente, e l’eloquenza simigliante a una mano aperta, che si allarga, e diffonde assai più. Per dichiaratione del Papagallo servirà quanto si è detto di sopra.[64]
      • L’Iconologia di Cesare Ripa, edita per la prima volta nel 1593, offre il più vasto repertorio delle immagini allegoriche adottate dalle arti figurative.[65]

Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626)

  • Polly Studies: Francis Bacon, Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human [66]
    • For if you observe the words well, it is no other method than that which brute beasts are capable of, and do put in ure; which is a perpetual intending or practising some one thing, urged and imposed by an absolute necessity of conservation of being. For so Cicero saith very truly, Usus uni rei deditus et naturam et artem sæpe vincit.
    • And therefore if it be said of men, “Labor omnia vincit Improbus, et duris urgens in rebus egestas”, it is likewise said of beasts, “Quis psittaco docuit suum χαιρε? “

Dirck Pietersz. Pers (1581 – 1659)

  • Polly Studies: Dirck Pietersz. Pers, Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia of Uytbeeldinghen des Verstants [67]
  • Eloquenza. Welsprekentheyt.
    • Een Vrouwe in ’t root gekleet, houdende in de rechter hand een Boeck, en de slincker hand verheven, en de voorste Vinger uytstekende. Dicht by haere voeten, sal een Boeck leggen, waer op een Sandlooper sal staen, en daer neffens een Vogelkouw, alwaer een Papegay sal boven op sitten. Het Boeck en de Sandlooper, zijn kenteyckens dat de woorden zijn gereetschappen van de Welsprekentheyt, en dese sullen werden gebruyckt, op haere ordre, tijd en maete. Zijnde alleene de Reeden door den tijd afgemeeten, krijgende daer van de getallen, den stijl, de aerdigheyt en een deel van de bequaemheyt, om te overreeden. De Papegay is een beeld van de Welsprekentheyt, want zy doet een groot wonder mette tonge en spraecke, naebootsende daer in den Mensche, in wiens tonge alleene de oefninge van de Welspreeckentheyt bestaet. En de Papegay wordt boven op de kouwe gestelt, om dat de Welsprekentheyt aen geen perck of plaetse is gebonden, zijnde haer ampt datse van alle stoffe, die haer magh voorkomen, wijslijck en wel weet te spreecken; gelijck Cicero en andere ’t selve verklaeren. Het roode kleed vertoont, dat de reeden soo beweeghlijck en doordringende moet zijn, datse de roodigheyt en beschaemtheyt ten aengesichte kan uytperssen: en derhalven moet de Welsprekentheyt bequaem wesen totte overreedinge: nae ’t seggen van Horatius, daer hy aldus spreeckt, Indien ghy wilt dat ick sal schreyen, soo moet de treurigheyt en rouwe eerst van u beginnen. En dese opgeweckte versekeringe, geeftse met de hand en met den verheven vinger te kennen, want een groot deel van de Welsprekentheyt, bestaet in de gesten of bewegingen van de Oratien of Reedenen.
      • Donna, vestita di rosso, nella man destra tiene un libro, con la sinistra mano alzata, e con l’indice, che è il secondo dito dell’istessa mano steso, e presso a’ suoi piedi vi sarà un libro, e sopra esso un Orologio da polvere; vi sarà ancora una gabbia aperta con un Papagallo sopra. Il Libro, come si è detto è indicio, che le parole sono l’istromento dell’eloquente; le quali però devono essere adoprate con ordine, e misura del tempo, essendo dal tempo misurata l’oratione, e da esso ricevendo i numeri, lo stile, la gratia, e parte dell’attitudine a persuadere. Il Papagallo è simbolo dell’eloquente, perché l’uno, e l’altro si rende meraviglioso con la lingua, e con le parole, l’uno imitando l’uomo, e l’altro la natura, che è regola de gli uomini, e ministra di Dio. Et si dipinge il Papagallo fuori della gabbia; perché l’eloquenza non è ristretta a termine alcuno, essendo l’ufficio suo di sapere dire probabilmente di qual si voglia materia proposta, come dice Cicerone nella Retorica, e gli altri, che hanno scritto prima, e dapoi. Il vestimento rosso dimostra, che l’oratione deve essere concitata, e affettuosa in modo, che ne risulti rossore nel viso, acciò che sia eloquente, e atta alla persuasione, conforme al detto d’Orazio: Si vis me flere, dolendum est primum ipsi tibi. Et questa assertione concitata si dimostra ancora nella mano, e nel dito alto, perché una buona parte dell’eloquenza consiste nel gesto dell’oratore.

Filippo Picinelli (1604 – ca.1679)

  • Polly Studies: Filippo Picinelli, Mundus symbolicus [68]
  • Psittacus humanas voces
  • Figuur 11 [69] (Translation: Parrot art research underway.)

Early Parrots (2)



Aesopus (ca. 620 v. Chr. – ca. 560 v. Chr.)

  • Polly Studies: Aesopus, Mille fabulae et una [70]
  • Psittacus Honoratus (549)
    • Psittacus, in aula regis degens, interrogabatur a ceterisavibus quid ita in magno haberetur honore. Quibus ille,“Quia,” inquit, “exprimendi humanas voces artem edoctussum.”
      Fabula nos admonet ut bonas et liberales ediscamus artes, si volumus ubique clari honorabilesque haberi.
  • Psittacus et Turtur (550)
    • Psittacus, ex oriente in occidentem delatus, ubihuiusmodi aves nasci non consueverunt, admirabatursese in maiori pretio et honore haberi quam in nataliconsuevisset solo, nam caveam eburneam argenteiscontextam virgis incolebat suavissimisque alebatur cibis,quod ceteris avibus occidentalibus, quae neque in forma,neque exprimendis humanis vocibus erant inferiores,non contingebat. Tunc turtur, in eadem cavea conclusus,“Hoc,” inquit, “nulla est admiratione dignum; nulli enimin patria meritus honor exhiberi solet.”
  • Psittacus et Dives (551)
    • Vir nobilis psittacum emerat, probe educatum,praenitentem corpore ac bene valentem. Hunc atriensicurandum dedit, at ille totum id negotii reiicit adianitorem, ianitor ad topiarium, topiarius demumad inertes pedisequos, qui, flocci aestimantes satisnecne herili psittaco fiat, illum saepe et saepius cibiquepotusque indigentem negligunt. Adiguntque ut gemat,pristinam sortem recolens, et dicat, “Quanto mihi beatiorvita erat sub casa paupere heri prioris! Dapes quasnaturae meae convenire scisset, caute eligebat, sedulo praeparabat, et copiose largiebatur. Ille quidem solus altormihi, sed optimus. Nunc in nobilis huiusce domo superba,ubi credidi sortem mihi meliorem fore, vita mea servisplurimis commendatur et interea, miser, fame longaconficior.”
      Si benefaciendi curam idoneus unus susceperit, praestat multitudini.

Aan Aesopos worden meer dan 350 fabels toegeschreven. Ze zijn gesteld in het Grieks en variëren in lengte. Over de precieze herkomst van de gedichten bestaat weinig zekerheid. Aangenomen wordt dat niet alle fabels van Griekse oorsprong zijn en dat de fabels die met zijn naam worden verbonden, dateren van zowel voor als na zijn tijd.[71]

The Perry Index is a widely used index of “Aesop’s Fables” or “Aesopica”, the fables credited to Aesop, the story-teller who lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 560 BC. Modern scholarship takes the view that Aesop probably did not compose all of the fables attributed to him; indeed, a few are known to have first been used before Aesop lived, while the first record we have of many others is from well over a millennium after his time. Traditionally, Aesop’s fables were arranged alphabetically, which is not helpful to the reader. Perry and Rodriguez Adardos separated the Greek fables from the Latin ones, with the Greek ones first; then they arranged each group chronologically and by source; finally they arranged the fables alphabetically within these groups. This system also does not help the casual reader, but is the best for scholarly purposes.

Ben Edwin Perry (1892-1968) was a professor of classics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1924 to 1960. He was author of Studies in the Text History of the Life and Fables of Aesop and many other books. His Aesopica (“A Series of Texts Relating to Aesop Or Ascribed to Him Or Closely Connected with the Literal Tradition that Bears His Name”) has become the definitive edition of all fables reputed to be by Aesop, with fables arranged by earliest known source. His index of fables has been used as a reference system by later authors.[72]



  • Aberdeen Bestiary, MS 24, University Library, Aberdeen. [73] [74]

India alone produces the bird called the parrot, green in colour, with a deep-red neck and a large tongue, broader than those of other birds, with which it utters distinct words; so that if you did not see it, you would think it was a man talking. Characteristically, it greets you by saying in Latin or Greek: ‘Ave’ or ‘Kere!’ – ‘Hail!’ It will learn other words if you teach it. Which explains the lines: ‘Like a parrot, I will learn other people’s names from you, but this I have learned by myself to say: Hail, Caesar!’ (Martial, Epigrams, 14, 73). The parrot’s beak is of such hardness that if it falls from a height on to a rock, it takes the impact on its mouth, using it as base of uncommon toughness. Its skull is so thick, that if ever you have to admonish it with blows to learn – for it tries hard to speak like men – you should beat it with an iron rod. For when it is young, up to two years of age, it learns what it is told very quickly and keeps it firmly in mind; when it is a little older, it is forgetful and is difficult to teach.

  • Bestiary of Anne Walshe, MS. GKS. 1633 4º, Royal Library, Copenhagen.
  • Iran, Maragheh, 1297-1298 or 1299-1300, and 19th century. MS M.500 fol. 69v, The Morgan Library & Museum, New York.[75]
  • Cambridge Bestiary, MS 379 folio 16r., Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge.
  • Leningrad Bestiary, Q.v.V,1, Rossiiskaia natsional’naia biblioteka, St Petersburg.[76]

Psittacus. The text is taken partly from the story by Isidore van Sevilla and also makes use of the knowledge provided by Plinius and Solinus. It is a green bird with a red collar which lives in India only. It imitates human speech and while it is young it can be taught to pronounce words. But when it grows old, the bird becomes absent-minded and slow-witted. The parrot’s hard beak saves the parrot when it happens to fall headlong on a rock.

They story of the parrot uttering “Ave, Ceasar”, comes from Martiali, Pseudo-Hugh of Saint Victor and Pierre de Beauvais. Albertus Magnus and Brunetto Latini added new facts to the story.

The miniature illuminating the text about the parrot shows an anonymous bird with a beak and tail clearly outlined. It is rather frequently met in Romanesque sculpture as well. The parrot is often given a life-like representation in late medieval art, when the parrot, together with other exotic animals, became a usual attraction in court menageries.

  • London Bestiary, Harley MS 4751 folio 39v., British Library, London.
  • Paris Bestiary, lat. 3638A, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
  • Oxford Bestiary, Joachim of Fiore, MS. Douce 88 folio 17v., Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.[77]

The parrot is a bird found in India that can be taught to speak like a man. It learns better when it is young, but if it will not learn one must hit it over the head with an iron bar.

  • Oxford Bestiary, MS. Douce 151 folio 52v., Bodleian Library, University of Oxford.
  • The Hague Bestiary, RMMW, 10 B 25, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Den Haag.



Algemeen bibliografie (possible sources) [78]

Classical and medieval sources

  • Aelian, Historia animalium (Zurich editio princeps by Conrad Gesner)
  • Aesop, Fabulae (Lyon 1571, commentary by Joachim Camerarius 1571, and illustrated)
  • Aristotle, De animalibus (Basel 1548, of the Opera Omnia); Historia general de aves y animales (Valencia 1621)
  • Albertus Magnus, De animalibus (Lyon 1621, of the Opera Omnia), (Frankfurt 1545, German, illustrated)
  • Bartholomeus Anglicus, Encyclopedia, Book XI on the animals (Toulouse 1494 Spanish by Fray Vicente de Burgos; Augsburg 1505 Latin; London 1571 English, translation and annotation by J. Batman)
  • Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII on the animals (Madrid 1599 editio optima, with commentaries by various authors)
  • Philes, Versus iambici de animalium proprietate, cum auctario Joachimi Camerarii (Heidelberg 1596)
  • Pliny, Naturalis historia, Books VII-XI on the animals (Paris 1685 ed. by Harduin; Frankfurt 1565, German, illustrtated; Madrid 1621, Spanish by Jerónimo de Huerta)
  • Plutarch, De sollertia animalium. (Basel 1571 Greek-Latin, tr. by Guilielmus Xylander; Salamanca 1571, Spanish by de Diego Gracián; Paris 1612, French by Jacques Amyot; London 1603 English by Philemon Holland)
  • Solinus, Rerum memorabilium (Basel 1543, Latin with commentary by P. Olivares; Seville 1573, Spanish by Cristóbal de las Casas)

Renaissance and Baroque manuals

  • Aneau, Barthélemy, Description des animaulx (Lyon 1549)
  • Bochart, Samuel, Hierozoicon sive bipartitum opus de animalibus sacrae scripturae (London 1663)
  • Camerarius, Joachim, jun. Symbolorum et emblematum centuria. (Nuremberg 1590-1604)
  • Cortés, Jerónimo, Libro y tratado de los animales terrestres y volatiles. (Valencia 1615)
  • Marcuello, Francesco, Primera parte de la historia natural y moral de las aves (Madrid 1617)
  • Nieremberg, J. E, Historia naturae, maxime peregrinae, libri XVI (Antwerp 1635)
  • Physiologus (Paris 1618, Greek-Latin with the commentaries of Nicolas Caussin)
  • Ramírez de Carrión, Maravillas de naturaleza (Córdoba 1629)
  • Simson, Archibald, Hieroglyphica animalium (Edimburgo 1622)
  • Ferrer de Valdecebro, Andrés, Gobierno general, moral y político, hallado en las fieras y animales sylvestres (Madrid 1658)
  • Ferrer de Valdecebro, Andrés, Gobierno general, moral y político, hallado en las aves … añadido con las aves monstruosas (Madrid 1683)
  • Werdmiller, Otho, Similitudines ab omni animalium genere desumptae (Zurich 1555)



Algemeen bibliografie (possible sources) [79] [80]

  • Alciato, Andrea, Emblemata (Augsburg 1531)
  • Aneau, Barthélemy, Picta poesis (Lyon 1552)
  • Bèze, Théodore de, Icones & Emblemata (Geneva 1580)
  • Bocchi, Achille, Symbolicarum quaestionum libri V (Bologna 1555)
  • Boissard, Jean-Jacques, Emblemata (Frankfurt 1593)
  • Boissard, Jean-Jacques, Theatrum vitae humanae (Frankfurt 1596)
  • Bruck, Jacobus, Emblemata moralia et bellica (Strasbourg 1615)
  • Bruck, Jacobus, Emblemata politica (Strasbourg 1618)
  • Camerarius, Joachim, Symbolorum & emblematum centuria (Nuremberg 1590-1604)
  • Cats, Jacob, Emblemata moralia et aeconomica (Rotterdam 1627)
  • Cats, Jacob, Proteus ofte Minne-beelden verandert in Sinne-beelden (Rotterdam 1627)
  • Corrozet, Gilles, Hecatongraphie. (Paris, 1543 [primera ed. 1540])
  • Coustau, Pierre, Pegma (Lyon 1555)
  • Custos, Raphael, Emblemata amoris (Augsburg 1622)
  • Faernus, Gabriel, Centum fabulae (Leiden 1600)
  • Haechtanus, Laurentius, Mikrokosmos: Parvus mundus (Antwerp, 1579, in German: Frankfurt, 1619)
  • Heinsius, Daniel. Het Ambacht van Cupido (Leiden 1595)
  • Holtzwart, Mathias, Emblematum Tyrocinia (Strasbourg 1581)
  • Hooft, Pieter Corneliszoon, Emblemata amatoria (Amsterdam 1611)
  • Hulsius, Bartholomaeus, Emblemata sacra (1631)
  • Isselburg, Peter, Emblemata politica. (Nuremberg, 1640 [first ed. 1617])
  • Junius, Hadrianus, Emblemata (Antwerp 1565) and the fifth edition, augmented (Antwerp 1585)
  • La Perrière, Guillaume de, La Morosophie (Lyon 1553)
  • La Perrière, Guillaume de, Le Theatre des Bons Engins (Paris 1539)
  • Lebeus-Batillius, Dionysius, Emblemata. (Frankfurt 1596 [illustrated second edition)
  • Mannich, Johann, Sacra emblemata (Nuremberg 1624)
  • Montanea, Georgia, Monumenta emblematum Christianorum virtutum (Frankfurt 1619, ed. in seven languages)
  • Pers, Dirck Pieterszoon, Bellerophon, of Lust tot Wiisheit (Amsterdam, ca. 1641 [first ed. 1614])
  • Reusner, Nicolas, Aureolorum emblematum liber (Strasbourg 1591, second edition, augmented)
  • Reusner, Nicolas, Emblemata partim ethica, et physica, partim vero historica & hieroglyphica (Frankfurt 1581)
  • Sambucus, Joannes, Emblemata (Antwerp 1566), and the fourth edition, augmented (Antwerp 1584)
  • Schoonhovius, Florentinus, Emblemata (Gouda 1618)
  • Sperling, Hieronymus, Paridi iudicium (Augsburg ca. 1740)
  • Taurellus, Nicolaus, Emblemata physico-ethica (Nuremberg 1595) second edition, augmented (Nuremberg 1602)
  • Passe II, Crispyn de. Thronus Cupidinis. (Amsterdam 1630) second edition, augmented
  • Vaenius, Otho, Amorum emblemata (Antwerp 1608)
  • Visscher, Anna Roemers, Zinne-Poppen (Amsterdam 1620) third edition, augmented
  • Zincgreff, Julius Wilhelm, Emblematum ethico-politicorum centuria (Heidelberg 1619)



[1] Birkhead, T.R. & Charmantier, I. (2009). History of Ornithology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. (Abstract published online)

[2] Theory at the Parrot Museum. Referentiearchief. Classificaties.

[3] De grote alexanderparkiet is een exoot uit Zuid–en Zuidoost–Azië, die naar Europa is gehaald. De vogel heet naar Alexander de Grote en was waarschijnlijk een van de eerste soorten parkieten die in Europa als kooivogel werd gehouden. Geraadpleegd op (…), van https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grote_alexanderparkiet

[4] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://emblems.let.uu.nl/c162714.html

[5] Ctesias was a Greek physician. He wrote several books about Persia and India. They are now lost but were quoted by ancient authors. The text is an excerpt from the Indica by the Byzantine scholar Photius (c.815–897); the translation was made by J.H. Freese.

[6] Geraadpleegd op (…), van

[7] Aristoteles, Historia Animālium, Book 8, Part 12.

[8] Barnes. J. (Ed.). (2014). Complete Works of Aristotle, Volume 1: The Revised Oxford Translation. Princeton (NJ): University Press.

[9] Crinagoras of Mytilene. In W.R. Patton (Red.), The Greek Anthology (1914–1918), (Volume I–V). (Vol. ?, p. 361). London: William Heineman (&) New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

[10] Ovidius, Amores, Book II, Elegy VI.

[11] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[12] E. Courtney, The Poems of Petronius, 1991.

[13] Gildersleeve, B.L. (ed.) (1875), The satires of A. Persius Flaccus. New York: Harper & Brothers.

[14] Martial, Epigrams, 14, 73.

[15] From The Silvae of Statius translated with Introduction and Notes, by D. A. Slater; Oxford: The Clarendon Press; 1908; pp. 96-97.

[16] Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 10, 58.

[17] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[18] Apuleius, Florida §12, tr. H.E. Butler (1909).

[19] Oppian, Cynegetica, Loeb Classical Library, 1928. (p.93)

[20] Conybeare. F.C. (Trans.). (1912). Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius. Harvard: University Press.

[21] Gaius Julius Solinus, Mirabilibus Mundi, LIII, India.

[22] Ambrosius, Hexaemeron, 5, Caput XIV.

[23] Schneider, H. (2001). Physiologus, Griechisch / Deutsch, übersetzt und herausgegeben von Otto Schönberger. Stuttgart: Reclam.

[24] De re coquinaria is the oldest known cookbook, dating from the 3rd century A.D., still in existence. Probably partly based on one written by a famous 1st century gourmet named Apicius at the court of Tiberius, it seems to be a compilation of recipes from other leading chefs of the ancient world. Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[25] Ambrosius Aurelius Theodosius Macrobius, Saturnalia 2.4. 29–30.

[26] Peter Brown, Poverty & Leadership in the Later Roman Empire (Menahem Stern Jerusalem Lecture), University Press of New England, 2002.

van Esbroeck, The Memra on the Parrot by Isaac of Antioch, Journal of Theological Studies 47, 1996, p. 464-476. (Focuses on the Syriac poem which was devoted to a parrot able to sing the Trishagion according to the addition of Peter the Fuller.)

[27] Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, Book 12, 7:24.

Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi: Etymologiarum Sive Originum, Libri XX: Tomus I, Libros I–X Continens (Oxford Classical Texts).

[28] De bestiis et aliis rebus’ of Hugo de Folieto, often attributed to Hugh of St Victor, Cap. XXVHI. De psittaco.

[29] Matthew, Louis Bourgain. (1879). Matthaei Vindocinensis Ars versificatoria: thesim proponebat Facultati … p.44. Bruxelles: Société générale de la librairie catholique.

[30] Geraadpleegd op (…), van https://www.metmuseum.org/…/3258965.pdf.banner…

[31] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://bestiary.ca/prisources/psdetail813.htm

[32] Alexander of Neckam, Of the Nature of Things (De naturis rerum), 1187.

[33] The Bestiary, Montague Rhodes James, Originally published in History: The Quarterly Journal of the Historical Association, New Series Vol. XVI, April, 1931—January, 1932, Macmillan and Co., Limited, London, 1932, Issue: No. 61, Vol. XVI, April, 1931, pages 1–11.

[34] Vincent of Beauvais (1196–1264), Speculum Naturale, 16.15, 16.135.

[35] Stadler, Hermann. (1916–20). Albertus Magnus, De animalibus libri XXVI. Nach der Gölner Urschrift. Zweiter Band, Buch XIII–XXVI enthaltend. Münster i. W. 1920. (1.509–10)

[36] Thomas Cantimpratensis, Liber de natura rerum.

[37] “… das gefieder des grünen Sittichs …” 1850.57. Wilhelm Grimm. Konrad von Würzburg, Goldene Schmiede, Verlag von Karl J. Klemann, 1840.

[38] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[39] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[40] St Petersburg, Li Livres dou Tresor codex, facsimile di M. Moleiro: fol. 45v.

[41] Der naturen bloeme, ca. 1270, Vlaanderen. Der naturen bloeme is een bewerking van De natura rerum van de filosoof en theoloog Thomas De Cantimpré (ca.1200/72).

[42] Petrus Berchorius, Reductorium morale (VII, 67) (Büttner, 2006)

[43] Pierre de Beauvais, Le Bestiaire (version longue), éd. C. Cahier et A. Martin, Mélanges d’archéologie, d’histoire et de littérature, Paris, tome II, 1851, p. 186.

[44] Victorin, P. (2008). Du papegau au perroquet, Cahiers de recherches médiévales, 15, 145-166.

[45] Ulrich von Lilienfeld, Concordantiae Caritatis, 1413, Central Library of the Ordo Scholarum Piarum, Budapest, Codex CX 2.

[46] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://www.cisto.at/stift/ulrich.html

[47] Sir John Mandeville, Travels, Chapter 30.

[48] Konrad von Megenberg (1309–1374), Buch der Natur, Johann Bämler, Augsburg, 1481.

[49] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[50] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[51] Giovanni Boccaccio, Genealogia deorum gentilium De Psitaco Deucalionis filio, Boek IV, Hoofdstuk 49.

[52] August Fick, Die griechischen Personennamen nach ihrer Bildung erklärt, 2. Auflage von F. Bechtel: 1894, p.318.

[53] Geraadpleegd op (…), van https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittakos_van_Mytilene

[54] Arnott, W.G., (2007). Birds in the ancient world from a to z. New York: Routledge.

[55] Le Jardin de Santé, Deuxième traité: des Oiseaux, de Jean de Cuba.  1500. [Paris: Antoine Vérard.]

[56] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://www.sites.univ-rennes2.fr/celam/cetm/cuba1/cubanop.htm#Chapitre .cij. De psitaco Papegault.

[57] Franciscus de Retza, Defensorium inviolatae virginitatis Mariae. Wien, Dominikanerkonvent, Cod. 206/172. f. 88v.

[58] Franciscus de Retza: Defensorium inviolatae virginitatis Mariae [Blockbuch] [Nördlingen] 1470. Graphische Sammlung (10773 b, Seite 12 – 2v). Bayerische StaatsBibliothek, München.

[59] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[60] (Pierio Valeriano, Hieroglyphica, sive de sacris Aegyptiorum aliarumque gentium litteris commentariorum: libri LVIII …, Basileae, 1556).

[61] Piero Valeriano, Hieroglyphica, Sive De Sacris Aegyptiorum Aliarumque Gentium Literis Commentarii : libri LVIII duobus aliis ab eruditissimo viro annexis. Accesserunt loco auctarii Hieroglyphicorum Collectanea : ex veteribus & recentioribus auctoribus descripta & in sex libros ordine alphabetico digesta [u.a.]. – Ed. ad novissimas Germaniae composita …. – Francofurti ad Moenum : Sumptibus Christiani Kirchneri, Typis Wendelini Moewaldi, 1678. (Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft:Thesaurus Eruditionis) [Emblems en aanverwant]

[62] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://emblems.let.uu.nl/c162714.html

[63] Cesare Ripa, Iconologia del Cavaliere Cesare Ripa, Perugino Notabilmente Accresciuta d’Immagini, di Annotazioni, e di Fatti dall’Abate Cesare Orlandi …, 5 vols. Perugia: Stamperia di Piergiovanni Costantini, 1764–67.

[64] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[65] Geraadpleegd op (…), van (…)

[66] Francis Bacon, Of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning, Divine and Human, 1605, The First Book; To the King, XIII.

[67] Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia of Uytbeeldinghen des Verstants, vertaald door Dirck Pietersz. Pers, Amsterdam 1644, p. 595.

[68] Mundus symbolicus, in emblematum universitate formatus, explicatus, et tam sacris, quàm profanis eruditionibus ac sententiis illustratus subministrans oratoribus, praedicatoribus, academicis, poetis &c. innumera conceptuum argumenta idiomate italico conscriptus à Reverendissimo Domino, Philippo Picinello … ; nunc verò justo volumine auctus & in latinum traductus à R.D. Augustino Erath … Published 1687 by Sumptibus Hermanni Demen in Coloniae Agrippinae.

[69] Psittacus. Cap. LIX. 604–611; 1681 Latin edition, Mundus Symbolicus, Vol. 1; 1687 Latin edition, Vol. 2.

[70] Mille Fabulae et Una: 1001 Aesop’s Fables in Latin by Laura Gibbs.

[71] Geraadpleegd op (…), van https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesopus

[72] Geraadpleegd op (…), van https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry_Index

[73] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://bestiary.ca/

[74] Geraadpleegd op (…), van https://www.abdn.ac.uk/bestiary/

[75] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/77/77363

[76] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://cultureru.com/

[77] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet

[78] Geraadpleegd op 6 november 2012, van http://www.emblematica.com/

[79] Geraadpleegd op 6 november 2012, van http://www.emblematica.com/

[80] Geraadpleegd op (…), van http://emblematica.grainger.illinois.edu/