– Histoire naturelle

Utrecht. Papegaaienmuseum. Polly studies. Referentiearchief. Histoire naturelle.

 


INTRODUCTION

 

A parrot ornithologist studies parrots, but there is no clear job description for the profession. Parrot ornithologists may work in the field with populations of wild parrots, in the laboratory, in the museums, or on data on their computer. They may specialize in a particular parrot group or be a generalist.

This document is partially written in English and partially in Dutch. The Parrot Museum (Papegaaienmuseum) is continually adding to its collections.


ABSTRACT

 

‘The study of birds began with Aristotle, but stagnated between the first century ad and the Renaissance. Ornithology became scientific with the abandonment of emblematics in the 1670s. John Ray initiated two strands of ornithology: systematics and natural history (field ornithology) in the late 1600s. Systematic ornithology focussed on the naming and classification of birds, and later, their geographical distribution. The natural history of birds (field ornithology) focussed on behaviour, ecology and ultimate causes. Ornithological encyclopedias were a product of the Renaissance. After the Renaissance ornithology became increasingly specialized. Charles Darwin’s concepts of natural and sexual selection in the mid-late 1800s were important in encouraging scientific interest in birds. The two strands of ornithology, systematics and natural history, were re-united in the 1920s (Germany) and 1940s (the UK and the USA). The modernization of ornithology during the twentieth century occurred largely as a result of the conceptual unification of evolutionary thinking in the 1940s and the focus on individual selection in the 1970s.’

(Birkhead, 2009)


EARLY BIRD BOOKS

 

  • Belon, Pierre, 1517?-1564. L’histoire de la nature des oyseaux: auec leurs descriptions, & naifs portraicts retirez du naturel. Paris: Guillaume Cauellat, 1555.
  • Gesner, Konrad, 1516-1565. Historiæ animalium liber III. qui est De auium natura. Zurich: Christoph Froschauer, 1555.
  • Aldrovandi, Ulisse, 1522-1605? Ornithologiae, hoc est, De auibus historiae libri XII. Bologna: Franciscus de Francisci, 1599.
  • Olina, Giovanni Pietro, fl. 1622. Vccelliera, ouero, Discorso della natura, e proprieta di diuersi vccelli, e in particolare di que’che cantano. Rome: M. Angelo de Rossi, 1684.
  • Brisson, Mathurin-Jacques, 1723-1806. Ornithologie, ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, especes & leurs variétés. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760.
  • Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de, 1707-1788. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux. Paris: De l’imprimerie royale, [1770-1785].
  • Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, comte de, 1707-1788. Planches enluminées des oiseaux de Buffon. [Paris, 1765-1780]
  • Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, comte de, 1707-1788. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux…; rédigé par C.S. Sonnini. Paris: F. Dufart, 1800?-1805. Catesby, Mark, 1633-1749. Natural History of the Carolinas, Florida and the Bahama Islands. London, 1731.
  • Albin, Eleazar, fl. 1713-1759. A Natural History of Birds. London: W. Innys and R. Manby, 1731-1738.
  • Edwards, George, 1694-1773. Gleanings of Natural History. London: Printed for the author, 1758-1764.
  • Latham, John, 1740-1837. General Synopsis of Birds. London, 1781-1801 (Supplement. London: Leigh & Sotheby, 1787-1801).
  • Wilson, Alexander, 1766-1813. American Ornithology. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1808-1814.
  • Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Ornithological Biography. Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1835.
  • Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Birds of America. NY: Audubon; Philadelphia: J. B. Chevalier, 1840.

In de gevallen Buffon en Audubon betreft het relevante opeenvolgende edities.

(Bregman, 2009)


MONOGRAPHS OF THE PARROTS

 

  • François Levaillant (1753-1824). Histoire naturelle des perroquets. Paris: Levrault frères and Levrault, Schoell & Co., 1801-1805. [Illustrated by Jacques Barraband (1767-1809)]
  • Edward Lear (1812-1888), Illustrations of the family of Psittacidae, or parrots: the greater part of them species hitherto unfigured, containing forty-two lithographic plates, drawn from life, and on stone, E. Lear, London, 1832.
  • Christian Ludwig Brehm (1787-1864), Monographie der Papageien oder vollständige Naturgeschichte aller bis jetzt bekannten Papageien mit getreuen und ausgemalten Abbildungen, im Vereine mit anderen Naturforscher herausgegeben von C.L. Brehm, Jena & Paris, 1842-1855.
  • Otto Finsch (1839-1917), Die Papageien: Monographisch bearbeitet von Otto Finsch, Leiden: Brill, 1867-1868.
  • Anton Reichenow (1847-1941), Vogelbilder aus fernen Zonen. Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Papageien. Allen Naturfreunden, insbesondere den Liebhabern ausländischer Stubenvögel und Besuchern zoologischer Gärten, Kassel: Fischer, 1878-83. [Illustrated by Gustav Mützel (1839-1893)]
  • Joseph M. Forshaw, Parrots of the world, Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1973. (Illustrated by William T. Cooper)

Bijzondere vermeldingen:

  • Carl Wilhelm Hahn, Heinrich Carl Küster, Ornithologischer Atlas oder naturgetreue Abbildung und Beschreibung der aussereuropäischen Vögel, Erste Abtheilung Papageien (Psittacus, Linn.): 1-100, 1-79 pls., Nürnberg, 1834-41.
  • Alfred Edmund Brehm (1829-1884), Brehms Thierleben. Allgemeine Kunde des Thierreichs, Vierter Band, Zweite Abtheilung: Vögel, Erster Band: Papageien, Leichtschnäbler, Schwirrvögel, Spechte und Raubvögel. Leipzig: Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, 1882., S. 37-58.

PARROTS (BIOLOGICAL)

 

Agapornis canus Agapornis fischeri Agapornis lilianae Agapornis nigrigenis Agapornis personatus Agapornis pullarius Agapornis roseicollis Agapornis swindernianus Agapornis taranta Alisterus amboinensis Alisterus chloropterus Alisterus scapularis Amazona aestiva Amazona agilis Amazona albifrons Amazona amazonica Amazona arausiaca Amazona autumnalis Amazona barbadensis Amazona brasiliensis Amazona collaria Amazona dufresniana Amazona farinosa Amazona festiva Amazona finschi Amazona guildingii Amazona imperialis Amazona kawalli Amazona leucocephala Amazona martinicana Amazona mercenaria Amazona ochrocephala Amazona pretrei Amazona rhodocorytha Amazona tucumana Amazona ventralis Amazona versicolor Amazona vinacea Amazona violacea Amazona viridigenalis Amazona vittata Amazona xantholora Amazona xanthops Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Anodorhynchus leari Aprosmictus erythropterus Aprosmictus jonquillaceus Ara ambiguus Ara ararauna Ara atwoodi Ara chloroptera Ara erythrocephala Ara glaucogularis Ara glaucus Ara gossei Ara guadeloupensis Ara macao Ara militaris Ara rubrogenys Ara severus Ara tricolor Aratinga acuticaudata Aratinga aurea Aratinga auricapillus Aratinga brevipes Aratinga cactorum Aratinga canicularis Aratinga chloroptera Aratinga erythrogenys Aratinga euops Aratinga finschi Aratinga holochlora Aratinga jandaya Aratinga labati Aratinga leucophthalmus Aratinga mitrata Aratinga nana Aratinga pertinax Aratinga pintoi Aratinga rubritorquis Aratinga solstitialis Aratinga strenua Aratinga wagleri Aratinga weddellii

Barnardius barnardi Barnardius zonarius Bolbopsittacus lunulatus Bolborhynchus aurifrons Bolborhynchus aymara Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons Bolborhynchus lineola Bolborhynchus orbygnesius Brotogeris chiriri Brotogeris chrysopterus Brotogeris cyanoptera Brotogeris jugularis Brotogeris pyrrhopterus Brotogeris sanctithomae Brotogeris tirica Brotogeris versicolorus

Cacatua alba Cacatua ducorpsii Cacatua galerita Cacatua goffini Cacatua haematuropygia Cacatua leadbeateri Cacatua moluccensis Cacatua ophthalmica Cacatua pastinator Cacatua sanguinea Cacatua sulphurea Cacatua tenuirostris Callocephalon fimbriatum Calyptorhynchus banksii Calyptorhynchus baudinii Calyptorhynchus funereus Calyptorhynchus lathami Calyptorhynchus latirostris Chalcopsitta atra Chalcopsitta cardinalis Chalcopsitta duivenbodei Chalcopsitta scintillata Charmosyna amabilis Charmosyna diadema Charmosyna josefinae Charmosyna margarethae Charmosyna meeki Charmosyna multistriata Charmosyna palmarum Charmosyna papou Charmosyna placentis Charmosyna pulchella Charmosyna rubrigularis Charmosyna rubronotata Charmosyna toxopei Charmosyna wilhelminae Conuropsis carolinensis Coracopsis nigra Coracopsis vasa Cyanoliseus patagonus Cyanopsitta spixii Cyanoramphus auriceps Cyanoramphus malherbi Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae Cyanoramphus ulietanus Cyanoramphus ulietanus Cyanoramphus unicolor Cyanoramphus zealandicus Cyclopsitta diophthalma Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii

Deroptyus accipitrinus Diopsittaca nobilis

Eclectus roratus Enicognathus ferrugineus Enicognathus leptorhynchus Eolophus roseicapilla Eos bornea Eos cyanogenia Eos histrio Eos reticulata Eos semilarvata Eos squamata Eunymphicus cornutus

Forpus coelestis Forpus conspicillatus Forpus cyanopygius Forpus passerinus Forpus sclateri Forpus xanthops Forpus xanthopterygius

Geoffroyus geoffroyi Geoffroyus heteroclitus Geoffroyus simplex Glossopsitta concinna Glossopsitta porphyrocephala Glossopsitta pusilla Graydidascalus brachyurus Guaruba guarouba

Hapalopsittaca amazonina Hapalopsittaca fuertesi Hapalopsittaca melanotis Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops

I J K

Lathamus discolor Leptopsittaca branickii Lophopsittacus bensoni Lophopsittacus mauritianus Loriculus amabilis Loriculus aurantiifrons Loriculus beryllinus Loriculus camiguinensis Loriculus catamene Loriculus exilis Loriculus flosculus Loriculus galgulus Loriculus philippensis Loriculus pusillus Loriculus sclateri Loriculus stigmatus Loriculus tener Loriculus vernalis Lorius albidinucha Lorius chlorocercus Lorius domicella Lorius garrulus Lorius hypoinochrous Lorius lory

Mascarinus mascarinus Melopsittacus undulatus Micropsitta bruijnii Micropsitta finschii Micropsitta geelvinkiana Micropsitta keiensis Micropsitta meeki Micropsitta pusio Myiopsitta monachus

Nandayus nenday Nannopsittaca dachilleae Nannopsittaca panychlora Necropsittacus rodericanus Neophema bourkii Neophema chrysogaster Neophema chrysostoma Neophema elegans Neophema petrophila Neophema pulchella Neophema splendida Neopsittacus musschenbroekii Neopsittacus pullicauda Nestor meridionalis Nestor notabilis Nestor productus Northiella haematogaster Nymphicus hollandicus

Ognorhynchus icterotis Oreopsittacus arfaki Orthopsittaca manilata

Pezoporus occidentalis Pezoporus wallicus Phigys solitarus Pionites leucogaster Pionites melanocephala Pionopsitta aurantiocephala Pionopsitta barrabandi Pionopsitta caica Pionopsitta haematotis Pionopsitta pileata Pionopsitta pulchra Pionopsitta pyrilia Pionopsitta vulturina Pionus chalcopterus Pionus fuscus Pionus maximiliani Pionus menstruus Pionus senilis Pionus seniloides Pionus sordidus Pionus tumultuosus Platycercus adscitus Platycercus caledonicus Platycercus elegans Platycercus eximius Platycercus icterotis Platycercus venustus Poicephalus crassus Poicephalus cryptoxanthus Poicephalus flavifrons Poicephalus fuscicollis Poicephalus gulielmi Poicephalus meyeri Poicephalus robustus Poicephalus rueppelli Poicephalus rufiventris Poicephalus senegalus Polytelis alexandrae Polytelis anthopeplus Polytelis swainsonii Primolius auricollis Primolius couloni Primolius maracana Prioniturus discurus Prioniturus flavicans Prioniturus luconensis Prioniturus mada Prioniturus montanus Prioniturus platenae Prioniturus platurus Prioniturus verticalis Prioniturus waterstradti Probosciger aterrimus Prosopeia personata Prosopeia tabuensis Psephotus chrysopterygius Psephotus dissimilis Psephotus haematonotus Psephotus pulcherrimus Psephotus varius Pseudeos fuscata Psittacella brehmii Psittacella madaraszi Psittacella modesta Psittacella picta Psittacula alexandri Psittacula calthorpae Psittacula caniceps Psittacula columboides Psittacula cyanocephala Psittacula derbiana Psittacula echo Psittacula eupatria Psittacula exsul Psittacula finschii Psittacula himalayana Psittacula intermedia Psittacula krameri Psittacula longicauda Psittacula roseata Psittacula wardi Psittaculirostris desmarestii Psittaculirostris edwardsii Psittaculirostris salvadorii Psittacus erithacus Psitteuteles goldiei Psitteuteles iris Psitteuteles versicolor Psittinus cyanurus Psittrichas fulgidus Purpureicephalus spurius Pyrrhura albipectus Pyrrhura amazonum Pyrrhura caeruleiceps Pyrrhura calliptera Pyrrhura cruentata Pyrrhura devillei Pyrrhura egregia Pyrrhura eisenmanni Pyrrhura emma Pyrrhura frontalis Pyrrhura griseipectus Pyrrhura hoematotis Pyrrhura hoffmanni Pyrrhura lepida Pyrrhura leucotis Pyrrhura lucianii Pyrrhura melanura Pyrrhura molinae Pyrrhura orcesi Pyrrhura perlata Pyrrhura peruviana Pyrrhura pfrimeri Pyrrhura picta Pyrrhura rhodocephala Pyrrhura roseifrons Pyrrhura rupicola Pyrrhura snethlageae Pyrrhura subandina Pyrrhura viridicata

Q

Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha Rhynchopsitta terrisi

Strigops habroptilus

Tanygnathus gramineus Tanygnathus lucionensis Tanygnathus megalorynchos Tanygnathus sumatranus Touit batavica Touit costaricensis Touit dilectissima Touit huetii Touit melanonotus Touit purpurata Touit stictoptera Touit surda Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus Trichoglossus euteles Trichoglossus flavoviridis Trichoglossus haematodus Trichoglossus johnstoniae Trichoglossus ornatus Trichoglossus rubiginosus Triclaria malachitacea

U

Vini australis Vini kuhlii Vini peruviana Vini stepheni Vini ultramarine

W X Y Z


BIRD TAXIDERMY

 

Bird taxidermy requires great skill and patience. The birds fall into three groups, waterfowl, game birds and turkey. The wood duck provides a good starting point. Basic techniques used in wood duck taxidermy apply to most other waterfowl and game birds. Turkey taxidermy requires greater expertise and technique. To learn the basics of bird taxidermy, follow these steps.

Difficulty: Challenging

Things You’ll Need:

  • Measuring tape
  • Scalpel
  • Latex gloves
  • Sharpened spoon
  • Dishwashing liquid
  • Blow dryer
  • Heavy wire
  • Twine
  • Needle
  • Small log
  • WD40
  • Fine wire
  • Masking tape
  • Super glue
  • Insect pins
  • Liquid crystal

Instructions:

  • Record details of the bird’s death and take measurements of your entire bird to aid in reconstruction. Taxidermy law requires this process.
  • Make an incision with a scalpel in the bird’s breast below the neck, cutting slowly down the center to the posterior. Peel back its skin, which holds the bird’s feathers together much like human hair roots into our skin. Detach its skin from its wings and legs, using your latex-gloved hands.
  • Remove all flesh and fat from its skin using a sharpened spoon. Make sure you keep the feather tracts, the roots into the outer skin, intact. Save the wing and leg bones.
  • Wash and de-grease the bird using dishwashing liquid diluted with water to prepare attachment to its tail, legs, wings and head. After washing the bird’s skin, place it in a washing machine on spin cycle if it’s too moist. Dry the feathers, using a blow dryer on medium heat.
  • Run heavy wire down its legs and wings, being sure to bind tightly where there are muscles missing. Then attach the legs and wings to the bird’s body. Sew up the skin with a needle and thin but sturdy twine and place it on a base.
  • Realign its feathers in their natural position and replace any damaged feathers. Take time with this step; otherwise, your end result doesn’t appear realistic.
  • Arrange the bird in a natural pose, using your previous measurements to create a life-like model. Mount the bird on a small log or rock. Once you’ve set your mount into its pose, secure the feathering with wire until the skin sets which takes up to two weeks.

AANTEKENINGEN

 

Birkhead, T.R. & Charmantier, I. (2009). History of Ornithology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. (Abstract published online)

Bregman, A. (2009). Early Birds: A selection of bird books from Belon to Audubon. An Exhibition at The Rare Book & Manuscript Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 30 January – 2 March 2009.

Geraadpleegd op 12 april 2005, van http://www.ehow.com/how_2104068_taxiderm-bird.html 


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